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More properly spelled Kettenkäfer, the name is German for "chain-beetle" (ketten "chain" + käfer "beetle"). Chain Beetles are a fictional species of isopod (insect-like crustacean) in Blue Planet, a RPG released in 1997 set on the fictional world of Poseidon in the Lambda Serpentis star system (a G-type star system, similar to the Sol star system, 38ly from Earth), which is noted for having an incredibly hard shell. They are amphibious, with cryptic coloration, usually matching sand or mud, and can grow up to 5 meters long. They tend to be aggressive and fearless because of their highly protective shell. Their name originates from their behavior, where they chain together into a small colony to function as a single entity while hunting for food. To kill one beetle in this colony if it were attacking would not deter it. They have almost no natural predators, but were a favorite for harvesting by colonists for their ornamental shells.
Alternately, "Kettenkaefer" could be a play on words. In German, a guard dog is called a "Kettenhund"--literally "chain dog"--after the heavy chains used to secure them. Thus, Kettenkaefer could also mean "guard beetle", which would be a feasible interpretation of the name, as this beetle guards the knowledge of the Weaponskill. This is perhaps the more likely history behind this monster's name.